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New model for uncovering true HIV mortality rates in Zambia

A new study that seeks to better ascertain HIV mortality rates in Zambia could provide a model for improved national and regional surveillance approaches, and ultimately, more effective HIV treatment strategies.

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Nanostructure boosts stability of organic thin-film transistors

A nanostructured gate dielectric may have addressed the most significant obstacle to expanding the use of organic semiconductors for thin-film transistors. The structure, composed of a fluoropolymer layer followed by a nanolaminate made from two metal oxide materials, serves as gate dielectric and protects the organic semiconductor – which had previously been vulnerable to damage from the ambient environment.

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Surprising discovery could lead to better batteries

Scientists have observed the concentration of lithium inside individual nanoparticles reverse at a certain point, instead of constantly increasing. This discovery is a major step toward improving the battery life of consumer electronics.

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Past exposures shape immune response in pediatric acute respiratory infections

By analyzing immune cells of children who came to the emergency department with flu symptoms, researchers found that the suite of genes these early-response cells expressed was shaped by factors such as age and previous exposures to viruses. Better understanding how early infections influence long-term immune response has implications for the diagnosis and treatment of young patients who suffer from acute respiratory tract infections.

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New antifungal provides hope in fight against superbugs

Microscopic yeast have been wreaking havoc in hospitals around the world — creeping into catheters, ventilator tubes, and IV lines — and causing deadly invasive infection. One culprit species, Candida auris, is resistant to many antifungals, meaning once a person is infected, there are limited treatment options. But researchers have now confirmed a new drug compound kills drug-resistant C. auris, both in the laboratory and in a mouse model that mimics human infection.

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Scarring molecule in fat tissue links obesity with distressed fat

The fat of obese people becomes distressed, scarred and inflamed, which can make weight loss more difficult.

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Localized cooling of the heart limits damage caused by a heart attack

Researchers have succeeded in the localized cooling of the heart during a heart attack, a world first. By cooling part of the heart prior to and following angioplasty, the cardiologists believe that the damage from a heart attack can be limited.

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Scleroderma study: Hope for a longer life for patients with rare autoimmune disorder

The approach could represent the first new treatment to improve survival in patients with severe scleroderma in more than four decades.

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New warning system discovered in the immune defense

Researchers have discovered a previously unknown warning system that contributes to the body’s immune system. Mitochondria in the white blood cells secrete a web of DNA fibers that raises the alarm. The results may lead to increased knowledge about autoinflammatory diseases and cancer.

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The combination of two proteins exerts a regenerating effect in Parkinson’s disease

Current therapies for Parkinson’s disease are mainly of a replacement type and pose problems in the long term, so the challenge is to establish an early diagnosis and develop neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapies that will allow the symptoms of the disease to be slowed down or even reversed. Researcher have now documented the regenerative, neuroprotective effect of two neurotrophic factors when they are applied in a combined way.

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